Ketoconazole is used to treat fungal infections as well as preventing them from recurring. It is available as a cream, shampoo, or foam.
It may be used for various conditions including athlete's foot, jock itch, intertrigo or sweat rash, and tinea versicolor, when small patches of skin may change color. It is also used to treat dandruff14.
Ketoconazole is an older azole drug. Compared to the newer ones, it shows significant toxicity15. Because of this, it is recommended to only use ketoconazole when you are not able to use other kinds of antifungal medications. Application of ketoconazole may cause irritated or red skin. Use can also cause harm to your liver, as well as heart16.
Miconazole is available as a cream, tincture, gel, vaginal suppository, or powder. It is an azole antifungal that can treat infections such as oropharyngeal candidiasis, which infects the back of the mouth and throat, and volvovaginal candidiasis, a fungal infection of the vulva and vagina.
These conditions may be opportunistic infections which may occur in people with HIV. Because of this, the Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Adults and Adolescents with HIV includes recommendations for the use of miconazole for people with HIV17.
It may also be used for other mucosal yeast infections18.